Teologia ortodoxa da sexualidade

O penúltimo post da série é uma sumária exposição da teologia ortodoxa da sexualidade, compilada a partir de comentários esparsos do meu amigo e irmão na fé, André Luiz dos Reis:

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“No Éden, o eros, que é um poder unitivo d’alma, fluía do Nous para o corpo. Mas, com a Queda, ele passou a operar a partir do corpo, de modo caótico e ‘autônomo’, levando o homem a se esvair em desejo pelo mundo [a luxúria sendo um exemplo óbvio dessa queda]. O homem deve então retornar à castidade, ou seja, à correta operação erótica, e ele faz isso ou por meio do monacato [virgindade] ou por meio do casamento. A necessidade dessa cura é explicitada pela própria natureza disso que estamos cá chamando de eros, e que vou explicitar pelas palavras de São Dionísio o Areopagita:

”All things must desire and yearn for and love the Beautiful and the Good […][Eros is] a faculty of unifying and conjoining and of producing a special commingling together in the Beautiful and the Good: a faculty which pre-exists for the sake of the Beautiful and the Good, and is diffused from this Origin and to this End, and holds together things of the same order by a mutual connection, and moves the highest to take thought for those below and fixes the inferior in a state which seeks the higher. And the Divine Eros brings ecstasy, not allowing them that are touched by it to belong to themselves but only to the objects of their affection. This principle is shown by superior things through their providential care for their inferiors, and by those which are of the same order through the mutual bond uniting them, and by the inferior through their diviner tendency towards the highest […] Words of the most holy Hierotheus from the Hymns of Eros: ‘Eros (whether it be in God or in angel, or spirit, or animal life, or nature) must be conceived of as a uniting and commingling power which moves the higher things to a care for those below them, moves co-equals to a mutual communion, and finally moves the inferiors to turn towards their superiors in virtue and position’.”

On Divine Names

Outros Padres dizem o mesmo desse poder chamado Eros, que o homem tem em si como imagem do Eros [ou ágape] Divino. Eles afirmam que sem a correção desse poder não se pode realizar a união com Deus.

“We should use the three aspects of the soul fittingly and in accordance with nature, as created by God. We should use the incensive power against our outer self and against Satan. ‘Be incensed’, it is written, ‘against sin’ (cf. Psalm 4.4), that is, be incensed with yourselves and the devil, so that you will not sin against God. Our desire should be directed towards God and towards holiness. Our intelligence should control our incensive power and our desire with wisdom and skill, regulating them, admonishing them, correcting them and ruling them as a king rules over his subjects.”

Santo Hesíquio, o Padre

“If we learn persistently to be detached from the good things of this world, we shall be able to unite the earthly appetite of the soul to its spiritual and intellectual aspiration, through the communion of the Holy Spirit”

São Diádoco de Foticéia

”“The desiring faculty has grown and matured not towards the good by nature, for the sake of which it was sown in us, but instead it has made the harvest beastly and irrational. This is where the impulse of desire has been led by misjudgement concerning the good. In the same way also the seed of anger has not been tempered into courage, but has armed us for battle with our own kind. Likewise the power of love has turned away from the intelligible, running riot in the immoderate enjoyment of the sensual […] We might be [deprived of the better part] if desire were altogether rooted out along with the useless growth. For if this should happen to our human nature, what is there which would raise us towards the union with the heavenly? Or if love is taken away, in what manner will we be joined with the divine? If anger is quenched, what weapon will we have against the adversary?”

São Gregório de Nissa

“For him whose mind is continually with God, even his concupiscence is increased above measure into a divinely burning love; and the entire irascible element is changed into divine charity.”

São Máximo o Confessor

”“The second of the mind’s elders or captains is the concupiscent faculty, whereby divine love (agape) is produced. Through this love, the mind, voluntarily attaching itself to the desire for the undefiled Godhead, has a ceaseless longing for what it desires.”

Idem

“The work of the cross is twofold. And this corresponds to the duality of nature which is divided into two parts: into endurance of bodily afflictions which comes through the energy of the irascible part of the soul and is called practice; and into the subtle work of the mind in sacred studies and constant prayer and so forth, which is done with that desiring part and is called contemplation. Practice purifies the passionate part through the power of zeal; contemplation refines that part capable of knowing by means of the energy of the love of the soul, which is its natural longing.”

Santo Isaac o Sírio

”It is thus not the man who has killed the passionate part of his soul who has the pre-eminence, for such a one would have no momentum or activity to acquire a divine state and right dispositions and relationship with God; but rather, the prize goes to him who has put that part of his soul under subjection, so that by its obedience to the mind, which is by nature appointed to rule, it may ever tend towards God, as is right, by the uninterrupted remembrance of Him […]Thus one must offer to God the passionate part of the soul, alive and active, that it may be a living sacrifice.”

São Gregório Palamas

Uma longa citação de São Máximo o Confessor sobre este ponto:

”“The beautiful is identical with the good, for all things seek the beautiful and the good at every opportunity, and there is no being which does not participate in them. They extend to all that is, being what is truly admirable, sought for, desired, pleasing, chosen and loved. Observe how the divine force of love – the erotic power pre-existing in the good – has given birth to the same blessed force within us, through which we long for the beautiful and good in accordancewith the words: ‘I sought to take her for my bride, and I became a lover of her beauty’ (Wisdom 8.2), and ‘Love her and she shall keep thee’ (Proverbs 4.6). Theologians call the divine sometimes an erotic force, sometimes love, sometimes that which is intensely longed for and loved. Consequently, as an erotic force and as love, the divine itself is subject to movement; and as that which is intensely longed for and loved it moves towards itself everything that is receptive of this force and love. To express this more clearly: the divine itself is subject to movement since it produces an inward state of intense longing and love in those receptive to them; and it moves others since by nature it attracts the desire of those who are drawn towards it. In other words,it moves others and itself moves since it thirsts to be thirsted for, longs to be longed for, and loves to be loved. The divine erotic force also produces ecstasy, compelling those who love to belong not to themselves but to those whom they love. This is shown by superior beings through their care of inferiors, by those of equal dignity through their mutual union, and by lower beings through their divine conversion towards those that are highest in rank. It was in consequence of this that St. Paul, possessed as he was by this divine erotic force and partaking of its ecstatic power, was inspired to say: ‘I no longer live, but Christ lives in me’ (Galatians 2.20). He uttered these words as a true lover and, as he himself says, as one who has gone out from himself to God (cf. II Corinthians 5.13), not living his own life but that of the beloved, because of his fervent love for Him […] God is said to be the originator and begetter of love and the erotic force. For He externalised them from within Himself, that is, He brought them forthinto the world of created things. This is why Scripture says that ‘God is love’ (I John 4.16), and elsewhere that He is ‘sweetness and desire’ (cf. Song of Songs 5.16), which signifies the erotic force. For what is worthy of love and truly desirable is God Himself […] We should regard the erotic force, whether divine, angelic, noetic, psychic or physical, as a unifying and commingling power. It impels superior beings to care for those below them, beings of equal dignity to act with reciprocity, and, finally, inferior beings to return to those that are greater and more excellent than they.”

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Filocalia

Aqui temos de entrar em um outro ponto dos ensinamentos patrísticos: homem e mulher são complementares. O casamento é uma via de restauração da união ou integralidade sexual original. Por isso os dois se tornam ”uma só carne”, porque ali a complementaridade original é restaurada. Essa complementaridade, por sua vez, espelha realidades maiores do que ela mesma. O casamento, isto é, a união complementar entre homem e mulher via eros, reflete a união entre Cristo e a Natureza Humana na Encarnação, a União entre Cristo e a Igreja, e até mesmo realidades ainda maiores, tal como explicado nas Homilias de São João Crisóstomo. A união homem/mulher no casamento restabelece a ‘pequena igreja’, não em um sentido moral [como é comum entre protestantes], mas ontológico: o homem é para a mulher aquilo que Cristo é para a Igreja e aquilo que o Pai é para o Cristo.

São Máximo o Confessor, por exemplo, explica que é o retorno do homem a Deus se dá por meio da derribada de uma série concêntrica de divisões. Esse retorno se dá pela reintegração que o homem faz nele mesmo, por meio do eros, primeiro da divisão ocorrida entre os sexos. Depois da divisão ocorrida entre mundo corpóreo e incorpóreo. Depois o homem se entrega todo a Deus demolindo assim a divisão entre o mundo criado e o Incriado.

Enfim, a divisão complementar dos sexos masculino e feminino foi feita à imagem, como ícone, dessas realidades superiores. Daí porque o Casamento é um Ícone da criação e da theosis.

Fonte

Anúncios

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